What are Feed Dog Sewing Machine: A Learning Journey

When I first started sewing, the feed dog sewing machine was a complete mystery. I had no idea how they worked or why they were so important. Over time, through trial and error (and a fair bit of frustration), I slowly began to understand the vital role feed dog play in achieving high-quality stitches. In this post, I’ll share my learning journey and insights about these essential feed dog sewing machine components.

What is Feed Dog Sewing Machine?

Feed dogs are the metal teeth-like ridges that emerge from a hole in the throat plate of a sewing machine. Their main purpose is to grip and move the fabric smoothly through the machine as you sew. Without functional feed dogs, the fabric would remain stationary, resulting in bunched-up stitches.

The Basics of How Feed Dog Work

As I stitch, the feed dogs move in a back-and-forth motion. On the forward stroke, they grip the underside of the fabric and pull it towards the rear of the machine. On the backward stroke, they disengage from the fabric, allowing the needle to shift positions for the next stitch. This rhythmic movement is what creates those beautiful, even stitches we all aim for.

Early Struggles with Feed Dogs

In my early sewing days, I constantly battled with the feed dogs. My stitches would be uneven, with the fabric shifting and bunching up unpredictably. No matter how much I adjusted the tension or stitch length, the problems persisted. It was incredibly frustrating!

The Lightbulb Moment

The turning point came when I realized the importance of properly adjusting the presser foot pressure for different fabric weights. On my vintage sewing machine, this was a manual process of tightening or loosening the presser foot screw.

If the presser foot was too tight, the feed dogs would try to pull the fabric in a curved direction instead of straight. If it was too loose, the fabric would slip and shift erratically. But when I found that perfect presser foot setting? Magic! The feed dogs would effortlessly guide the fabric in a perfectly straight line.

Evolution of Feed Dog Designs

As I delved deeper into the world of vintage sewing machines, I discovered how feed dog designs have evolved. Allow me to share a quick overview:

Early Sewing Machines

  • A single row of feed dog teeth
  • Very narrow presser foot
  • Required constant guidance to maintain straight stitches
  • Struggled with lightweight fabrics

Dual Feed Dog Rows

  • One long row of teeth, one shorter row
  • Wider presser foot with offset toes
  • Improved handling of lightweight fabrics
  • Still had issues with fabric curving at seam ends

Modern Parallel Feed Dogs

  • Two full-length rows of teeth
  • Presser foot toes equal length on both sides
  • Minimal guidance needed for straight stitches
  • Superior fabric control from start to finish

Current Configurations

  • Shorter but wider-spaced feed dog rows
  • Accommodate even wider presser feet
  • Same parallel feed concept as older models

Lowering Feed Dogs: When and Why

While most sewing involves the feed dogs being raised, there are instances where lowering or covering them is beneficial:

  • Free-motion quilting/embroidery: Gives you full control over stitch placement
  • Darning: Allows free movement of fabric for repairs

How to Lower Feed Dogs

  • Most modern machines have a dedicated switch
  • Older models may require a cover plate
  • Some quilters use plastic sheets or playing cards!

Always check your machine’s manual for the recommended method.

Specialized Presser Feet with Built-In Feed Dogs

Not all feed dogs are located on the throat plate. Some presser feet, like the walking foot (or even feed foot), have their own built-in feed dog system. These are incredibly useful when working with multiple fabric layers, such as quilting or sewing heavy materials like denim.

The walking foot’s feed dogs work in conjunction with the machine’s feed dogs, ensuring the top and bottom layers are fed at an equal rate. This eliminates the dreaded layer shifting that can ruin a project.

Benefits of the Feed Dog Sewing Machine

The feed dog sewing machine offers a multitude of benefits that have greatly enhanced my sewing experience. Here are some of the key advantages:

  • Consistent Stitching: 

The gentle grip and steady movement of the feed dog sewing machine ensure consistent stitch length and quality, resulting in professional-looking projects.

  • Fabric Control

By guiding the fabric through the machine, the feed dog sewing machine eliminates the need for excessive manual handling, reducing the risk of fabric distortion or shifting.

  • Versatility: 

The ability to lower or cover the feed dog sewing machine allows me to explore various techniques, such as freehand quilting and embroidery, expanding my creative possibilities.

  • Time-Saving: 

With the feed dog sewing machine doing the work of moving the fabric, I can focus on other aspects of the sewing process, improving my productivity and efficiency.

Maintenance and Care

Like any other component of my sewing machine, the feed dog sewing machine requires proper maintenance and care to ensure optimal performance. Here are some tips I’ve learned along the way:

  • Regular Cleaning: Lint and fabric debris can accumulate around the feed dog sewing machine, hindering its movement. I make sure to clean the area regularly with a soft brush or compressed air.
  • Lubrication: Refer to your machine’s manual for guidelines on lubricating the feed dog sewing machine mechanism. Proper lubrication ensures smooth operation and prevents premature wear and tear.
  • Gentle Handling: Avoid forcing the fabric or tugging excessively, as this can damage the feed dog sewing machine teeth or cause misalignment.
  • Accessory Care: If using specialized presser feet like the walking foot, follow the manufacturer’s instructions for proper cleaning and storage to maintain their functionality.

Tips for Optimal Feed Dog Performance

Over the years, I’ve learned a few tricks to keep my feed dogs functioning at their best:

  • Clean feed dogs regularly with a soft brush to remove lint/debris
  • Use the correct presser foot for the technique (e.g., walking foot for layers)
  • Adjust presser foot pressure as needed for different fabric weights
  • Avoid excessive fabric pinning, which can impede feed dog movement
  • Consider a newer machine if feed dogs are extremely worn/damaged

Understanding Feed Dog Markings

Some sewing machines have markings on the throat plate, indicating the feed dog positions. These markings can be incredibly helpful when aligning fabric edges or seam allowances for precision sewing.

  • Parallel lines: Indicate the path of the feed dogs
  • Crosshair or intersecting lines: Mark the needle position

By lining up my fabric edges or seam allowances with these markings, I can ensure accurate seam placement and consistent stitching.

Troubleshooting Feed Dog Issues

Despite our best efforts, feed dog problems can still arise. Here are a few common issues and their potential solutions:

Fabric Not Feeding Properly

  • Adjust presser foot pressure
  • Clean feed dogs and throat plate area
  • Check for damaged or bent feed dog teeth

Skipped Stitches

  • Ensure needle is properly installed and not bent
  • Check for debris or lint buildup around feed dogs
  • Adjust thread tension

Fabric Bunching or Puckering

  • Adjust presser foot pressure
  • Use a walking foot for multiple layers
  • Avoid excessive pinning or fabric manipulation

If these solutions don’t work, it might be time to consult a professional sewing machine technician.


The feed dog sewing machine may seem like a small and unassuming component, but its impact on the sewing process is profound. By understanding its mechanics and working in harmony with this invaluable tool, I’ve been able to elevate the quality of my projects and explore new creative avenues.

Leave a Comment